Solid Waste Management
Solid waste management can be broadly classified into two categories. According to Indian MSW, “Municipal Solid Waste” includes commercial as well as domestic wastes generated in municipal or notified area in either solid or semi-solid form and excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including the treated bio-medical wastes. Solid wastes also include hazardous waste generated by various industries.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) can be further classified into biodegradable waste (Food and kitchen waste), recyclable materials (Paper, glass, bottles, metals and certain plastics) and domestic hazardous waste (Medication, chemicals, light bulbs and batteries).
Solid waste management is one of the main challenges faced by many countries around the globe. Inadequate collection, recycling, treatment and uncontrolled disposal of waste in dumps can lead to severe hazards like health risks and environmental pollution.
The management of solid waste involves the collection, transport, processing as well as recycling and disposal.
Collection includes the gathering of solid waste, recyclable materials, and the transport of these materials, after collection, to location where the collection vehicle can be emptied. The location may be a material processing facility, a transfer station or landfill disposal site.
Waste disposal today is done primarily with land filling or closure of the existing dump sites. Modern sanitary landfills are not considered as dumps. They are engineered facilities which can be used for disposing of solid wastes on land without involving hazards to public health or safety, such as the breeding of insects or the contamination of ground water.